The Journal of Attention Disorders (JAD) focuses on basic and applied science concerning attention and related functions in children, adolescents, and adults. JAD publishes articles on diagnosis, comorbidity, neuropsychological functioning, psychopharmacology, and psychosocial issues. The journal also addresses practice, policy, and theory, as well as review articles, commentaries, in-depth analyses, empirical research articles, and case presentations or program evaluations.

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The Assessment of the Impact of Training With Various Metacognitive Interventions on the Enhancement of Verbal Fluency in School-Age Children With ADHD
Posted on Wednesday September 21, 2022

Journal of Attention Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Objective:The aim of this study was to examine whether a 3-month training with the use of the metacognitive strategies would strengthen the executive function related to verbal fluency in children with ADHD.Method:A total of 45 children with ADHD (M = 10.41; SD = 1.42) participated in a randomized experimental study. They completed the Verbal Fluency Test before and after training.Result:The results of the Wilcoxon test show that the mean number of words spoken by the child increased significantly in the second measurement compared to the first in the Mind Map group (M = 11.40; SD = 4.03; M = 14.46; SD = 3.99; p = .001). Unfortunately, this data did not apply to the Sketchnoting Group. Verbal regression was noted in the Control Group.Conclusion:The results provide an interesting premise for further research. Perhaps Mind Mapping training can be an effective form of complementary therapy.

Settling the Score: Can CPT-3 Embedded Validity Indicators Distinguish Between Credible and Non-Credible Responders Referred for ADHD and/or SLD?
Posted on Friday September 16, 2022

Journal of Attention Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Objective:The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the clinical utility of individual and composite indicators within the CPT-3 as embedded validity indicators (EVIs) given the discrepant findings of previous investigations.Methods:A total of 201 adults undergoing psychoeducational evaluation for ADHD and/or Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) were divided into credible (n = 159) and non-credible (n = 42) groups based on five criterion measures.Results:Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) revealed that 5/9 individual indicators and 2/4 composite indicators met minimally acceptable classification accuracy of ≥0.70 (AUC = 0.43–0.78). Individual (0.16–0.45) and composite indicators (0.23–0.35) demonstrated low sensitivity when using cutoffs that maintained specificity ≥90%.Conclusion:Given the lack of stability across studies, further research is needed before recommending any specific cutoff be used in clinical practice with individuals seeking psychoeducational assessment.

Epidemiological Study of Parental Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Subsequent Risk of ADHD in Their Children: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Posted on Friday September 16, 2022

Journal of Attention Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Objective:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with daytime drowsiness, nocturnal hypoxia, could result in systemic inflammation and oxidative damage. We hypothesize that parental OSA, with chronic systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, might contribute to children’s neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ADHD.Method:By linking National Birth Registry with the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan, we identified 2006–2015 birth cohort, which comprised 1,723,873 singleton live births, and conducted a nested case-control study. We included children with ADHD and compared them with non-ADHD controls matched with ADHD case on index date. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) when investigating the association between parental diseases with risk of ADHD in their offspring.Results:The aOR (95% CI) of offspring’s ADHD was 1.758 (1.458–2.119) with paternal OSA and 2.159 (1.442–3.233) with maternal OSA. The subgroup analysis revealed different effects of parental diseases among children’s gender.Conclusion:Our study demonstrates an association in parental OSA and offspring ADHD, which could inspire further research to clarify the mechanisms.

Intra-Subject Variability, Intelligence, and ADHD Traits in a Community-Based Sample
Posted on Friday September 09, 2022

Journal of Attention Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Objective:The present study investigates the predictive validity of intra-subject variability (ISV) for ADHD traits in a community-based sample and the stability of the relationship between ISV and fluid intelligence (gf) across the continuum of ADHD traits.Method:Age-residualized data from 426 participants (8–18 years, 6% ADHD) was used to investigate whether ex-Gaussian and DDM parameters derived from simple choice-reaction-time tasks can predict continuously assessed ADHD traits. Multiple-Group-Analyses and Latent-Moderated-Structural-Equations were used to test whether ADHD traits moderate the relationship between ISV and gf.Results:σ and μ of the ex-Gaussian model as well as DDM parameters drift rate (v) and boundary separation (a) significantly predicted general ADHD traits, while τ predicted attention difficulties specifically. Across the ADHD continuum, σ and v were significant predictors of gf.Conclusion:The results confirm the link between ISV and ADHD. The relationship between ISV and gf appears stable across the ADHD continuum.

Adult ADHD Treatment Based on Combination of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) as Measured by Subjective and Objective Scales
Posted on Thursday September 01, 2022

Journal of Attention Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Almost 30% of ADHD adults do not respond to standard pharmaceuticals. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method for modulation of cortical excitability. On the other hand, dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) is a cognitive-behavioral approach that might be utilized for adults with ADHD. The effects of integration of these interventions are only beginning to be explored. In the present work, we used both subjective and objective measures to investigate the effects of tDCS, DBT, and the integration of the two in treating adult ADHD symptoms. A total of 80 adults with ADHD (63 females, 17 males) participated in the study and were grouped into control, DBT, tDCS, and combined groups. Based on the observed results, the combination of DBT and tDCS was significantly effective in improving the mentioned variables compared to administration of each method in isolation. The results are discussed in terms of neurophysiological and psychological aspects of treatment methods.